Essay Examples

Effects of Cyber Bullying on Psychosocial Development in Adolescent

Cyberbullying is mostly entailing the act of intimidating a person by sending them threatening and daunting messages using electronic communication devices. The study is meant to investigate how cyberbullying affects the social and psychological growth of adolescents. Erikson theory of psychological suggests that in the eight stages of mental, an individual must experience a challenge.

The crisis may either have negative or a positive effect on an individual’s personality development. The research experience tested the relationship between cyberbullying and the adolescence development. Therefore, the findings showed that cyberbullying is a global public health apprehension among adolescents. Ultimately, Erikson theory of psychosocial relates with the research topic in that, regarding the eight stages that a healthy developing person must go through, there are challenges that one encounters. Also, cyberbullying affects the psychosocial growth of adolescents. Furthermore, the research results support this theory by highlighting the similar effects that teenager’s experiences. According to the findings, cyberbullying poses a significant threat to adolescents hence hindering their psychosocial development. Besides, the conclusion sums up to the fact that the youth’s personality is affected by cyberbullying thus could lead to low self-esteem.


Currently, the culture of young people is migrating whereby, instead of using the internet as a mode of communication every day, it has changed to be a necessity and a primary mode of communication. Therefore, it has created a perspective and unique harmful dynamic for a social correlation. Besides, cyberbullying encompasses action taken through communication technologies with the aim of hurting another person. According to Ericson theory, the first five stages occur up to the age of eighteen then the other three happen beyond to adulthood (Domino & Affonso., 1990). Erikson puts a great emphasis on adolescents’ development even though he believes there is room for a person to continue developing throughout their life. The human lifespan development area varies from childbirth to adulthood. Regarding this theory, acquisition of health virtues and successful growth of personality results from the completion of each development stage (Domino & Affonso., 1990).


In this case, the method used is correlation or descriptive whereby, we use a survey to investigate the relationship between the psychosocial development of adolescents and cyberbullying. The variables that impact cyber bullying among the young people in cyberspace were measured in this research design. Additionally, the effects of cyberbullying on the psychosocial development of an adolescent were collected through statistical data using this study. Evidently, the Internet communication among the youth is at a high rate hence increases the chances of cyberbullying occurrences. Furthermore, this study determines where a relationship between the two variables, which is cyber bullying and youth’s development, exists.

A descriptive analysis of the respondent’s demographic behavior occurred through this research design. Moreover, developed research questions and the hypothesis aimed at passing awareness of the effects of cyberbullying on how the youths develop socially. Some participants were used in the study and their experiences and attitude on cyberbullying and how their psychosocial development is affected was investigated. An institution review board played the role of evaluating the purpose of the study, position of the researcher and determining whether it is ethical (Morrow & Downey., 2013).

The study took place at Cambridge University located in England. The reason for choosing this site is the fact that it has a reasonable population which can serve best in the study. The respondents got recruited through an advertisement that was approved by the student government connotation. Questionnaires were given out to the participants to feel out their responses. Additionally, an observation method was used to collect more information on cyberbullying of adolescents.

In this study, convenience sampling to investigate students at Cambridge University was employed by the researcher. Besides, it involves, examining how the social health growth of a young person can be affected by cyberbullying. Additionally, the target population for this survey consisted of both male and female students. The questioners used were meant to collect data and information from the respondents. It was both structured and unstructured to give room for more collection of initial information. Therefore, the raw data collected stored for further statistical analysis to come up with the correct findings. Besides, the employed descriptive statistics measured and integrated cross-tabulation and frequency dissemination. Also, to obtain insight of the respondents of the study, utilization of frequency propagation of demographic data was conducted.

Limitation of the study

Foremost, the questionnaires had issues since they were not reused from a previous survey. It means that the researcher was the one who created them for only the purpose of examining and conducting the study. Also, Cambridge University constituted both Americans and African American students, so there was a limitation in investigating other races on the effects of cyberbullying on the psychosocial development of youths. Therefore, it is clear that the researcher did not have the same ethnicity collection.


According to study, it is evident that cyber bullying leads to victimization and internalization of issues by the young people. For instances, the findings show that there is the existence of a substantial relationship between the depression among adolescents and cyberbullying victimization. The results indicate that high rates of depressive effects relate to a significant amount of cyberbullying victimization (Morrow & Downey., 2013). Regarding the research, when controlling possible perplexing variables, there is a different influence of cyberbullying in depressing symptomology and suicidal thoughts in the adolescents’ group.

The results also show that cyberbullying may lead to externalizing complications of teenagers. For instance, when looking at the youths who have experienced cyberbullying, they are most likely involved in drug abuse and sexual behaviors. Example, taking alcohol, involved in early sex, carrying of weapons in schools among others. As compared to other peers, cyberbullying victims likely involve in these unethical actions. Besides, such practices affect the academic growth of the adolescent and also interferes with their general health growth (Valkenburg & Jochen., 2011).

Additionally, the outcomes show that cyberbullying also leads to problem behaviors and perpetration. Concerning the survey, it is evident that teenagers who are culprits of cyber bullying involve themselves in problem behaviors which may include, illegal acts, reactive aggression and increased number of proactive action Valkenburg & Jochen., 2011). Negative emotions from youths like anger, fear, frustration, embracement and sadness have been associated with cyber bullying. According to the findings, cyberbullying poses a significant threat to adolescents hence hindering their psychosocial development Valkenburg & Jochen., 2011).

The research findings change the personal values and behaviors of an individual in that; their personality is highly affected since they feel alone when bullied online and distressed. It leads to low self-esteem and in other cases, makes the person venture into immoral activities. Apart from low self-esteem, a person is ever reluctant to let family members near their technological communication devices and also withdraw from spending more time with friends and relatives. Additionally, there is a change in personality and looking for excuses to stay away from learning institutions or work. Alternatively, a psychology profession can use these research findings in a professional setting to assist cyberbullying victims. It could be done through counseling, going through therapy that would help the adolescent to overcome their distresses. By doing so, the rate of suicidal deaths and immorality among the youths will reduce (Valkenburg & Jochen., 2011).


Definitively, regarding the research study, it affects the lifespan development concept of Erikson psychosocial theory. Reason being, all the eight stages that are highlighted in this theory must be complete efficiently. They include trust and mistrust, shame and autonomy, guilt and initiative, inferiority and industry, role confusion and ego identity, isolation and intimacy, stagnation and generativity, despair and ego integrity. Completion of all the stages leads to the increased chances of solving crises among individuals. Erikson terms these crises as psychosocial in nature because they involve a person’s psychosocial needs. With all these said and done, cyberbullying affects the psychosocial growth of adolescents by victimization, making wrong decisions and changing their personalities. Therefore, this deduction sums up to the fact that the youth’s personality is affected by cyberbullying thus could lead to low self-esteem.